A “back translation” is - in our case - a translation from English to German of an English text (itself a translation from a German source text) which is then compared to the original German source text.
Still with me?
It’s also known as “reverse translation”.
It's a method of double-checking the quality of a translation.
If the back translation conveys the same meaning (not necessarily with the same words) as the original text, then the translation was a good one and can be relied upon.
It's a useful checking system where there's danger of cross-cultural misunderstanding creeping in to a translation (e.g. when there's no direct equivalence for a term or concept in the two languages being compared) - less likely in our German-English combination. It is typically used to check the quality of translations of cross-national surveys and focus group results, to prevent false interpretations creeping in.
Back translation is costly and time consuming as it involves a second, independent translator, but where the financial stakes are high, e.g. in assessing market demand for a product, then the cost of misunderstanding responses is even higher.
Scholars may use back translation as part of research, e.g. in translating early Greek renditions of biblical texts back into the original Aramaic. This process can highlight anomalies which may have arisen in the initial translation and which are relevant to meaning and interpretation. Reverse translations are also a methods of “recreating” lost literary texts, where only the translation is extant.
I have to admit that I’ve not been asked for a back translation from English to German yet........probably because German and English are fairly closely related languages. The scope for misunderstandings cropping up in a translation of a more disparate language pair - say Hungarian and Japanese - is probably much greater.
Unlikely. Translation is an art and not a mathematical process:
Translations are not word for word exchanges, and the linguistic structures of languages vary. Translations deal in “conceptual equivalence” - English readers of a translated German text should understand the meaning of the translated text, in the context of their own linguistic environment, as closely as German readers will understand and interpret the German original.
If you want to see the potential dangers inherent in back translation then have quick go yourself - use a free online translator such as the Google translator. Type an English sentence, translate into German and finally get the reverse translation from English to German – which should bring you back to the original text.
But probably won’t.
Here’s a quick example:
|Original English |
Successful work from home jobs make life great. My German translation site is part of the way I manage to make a success of my home based job.
Erfolgreiche Arbeit von zu Hause aus Jobs machen das Leben groß. Meine deutsche Übersetzung Seite ist ein Teil der Art und Weise gelingt es mir, ein Erfolg meiner Heimat machen basierte Job.
Back translation from English to German
The life makes successful work from at home from jobs large. My German translation side is a part of the way succeeds it to me, a success of my homeland makes was based job.
OK, I wouldn’t expect a real human translator to make such a pig’s ear of that back translation from English to German, but it gives you a hint of the potential difficulties involved!